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June 4, 2015no comments

A DrugBaron Glossary

To mark the fifth anniversary of this blog, as well as the launch of the new website, DrugBaron has collated some of his favorite phrases, each encapsulating an important concept in pharma R&D. Most of these terms were initially coined by DrugBaron in these pages, but have entered the wider biotech lexicon, and frequently feature in discussions of R&D strategy on Twitter, in articles and at meetings.     Here then is the definitive guide to the meaning behind the label:     Acceptable Failure  There is more than one way to fail, and they are not all equivalent. In drug development, sometimes the candidate fails for reasons that could never have been predicted.   The team did all the right things. With

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@jhuntingtonucam And presumably only getting worse with availability of cancer treatments that lengthen survival without "curing" patients
- Friday Jul 3 - 10:45am

RT @JHuntingtonUCam: Another reminder of the high risk of VTE in cancer: VTE is the second leading cause of death am…
- Friday Jul 3 - 10:43am


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May 20, 2015 no comments

The perils of ignoring negative data

This week, Eleven Biotherapeutics ($EBIO) announced the failure of its Phase 3 trial of an IL1 antagonist in dry eye.   The company indicated they saw no way forward for the product candidate in this indication, which with a little translation, indicates a comprehensive failure of the study (rather than a near-miss on the primary end-point, for example). Unsurprisingly, the company lost most (around 75% in the first few days after the announcement) of its value as a result.

Drug discovery and development is hard, so failure is inevitable. It’s easy, then to shrug your shoulders, declare this as “one of those things” and hope the rest of your portfolio fairs better in the grand pharmaceutical lottery.

But is investing in pre-approval therapeutics company just a lottery?   After all, when these companies come to market in an IPO (in the case of $EBIO in February 2014), there is usually quote a lot information already known. How predictable was this failure.


After all, in 2013 Eleven Biotherapeutics completed a phase 1/2a trial of EBI-005 in dry eye patients – a trial that, according to the company “informed the design of the phase 3 study”. This study showed the agent to be safe and well-tolerated, but while it showed a numerical decrease in various markers of dry eye, as well as an improvement in the patients view of the symptoms, these changes were not statistically significant.


In other words, the only prior study of this drug candidate in this disease showed no changes at all that could not just as easily have been attributed to chance.


Even the rationale for adopting this mechanism of action in dry eye was “possible” or “plausible” rather than compelling. Yes, IL1 levels are increased in tear fluid from patients with dry eye, but so are lots of other pro-inflammatory markers (such as TNF-alpha). There was little in the way of genetic evidence to link this pathway to dry eye in humans, and non-human models of inflammatory diseases are notoriously unreliable.


On the positive side, the market for an effective treatment for dry eye may prove to be substantial, as the disease is both prevalent and poorly served by existing treatment paradigms. But optimism about commercial potential is of no value unless the drug actually works.


Its easy to sound smart after the event, but investors in companies like $EBIO have to ask themselves if they are surprised at all by today’s developments. If they are, perhaps they need a primer on statistics (and in fact, the situation is worse than they might imagine, because the chance of success in the phase 3 study depends not on whether the earlier trials were positive but on the false discovery rate). Even


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Useful Resources

Discovering and developing drugs according to the “asset-centric” strategy depends entirely on the availability of high quality out-sourced service providers, who not only deliver the R&D infra-structure for small and virtual biotech companies, but who understand the essential differences between “asset-centric” R&D and the classical model. DrugBaron has founded and worked for more than a dozen asset-centric companies over the last decade, developing both small molecules and biologics in a wide range of indications. That experience has identified those service providers (usually smaller than the global brands) who understand “asset-centric” R&D and who can support new companies adopting this strategy.  Those are the companies listed here.

The Cambridge Partnership is the only professional services company in the UK exclusively dedicated to supporting companies in the biotechnology industry. We specialize in providing a “one-stop shop” for accountancy, company secretarial, IP management and admin services.

Accounting & Back-Office Services

A professional services company exclusively dedicated to supporting companies within the biotechnology industry.

RxCelerate Ltd is an outsourced drug development platform based near Cambridge, UK. We specialize in delivering an entire road map of drug development services from discovery and medicinal chemistry through to preclinical and clinical Phase IIa.

Out Sourced Drug Developer

Specialising in delivering an entire road map of drug development services from discovery through to preclinical/clinical Phase IIa.

Total Scientific Ltd is a preclinical CRO based near Cambridge, UK. We specialise in developing and characterising bespoke in vitro assays for discovery and development, including enzyme assays, binding assays and immunoassays together with biomolecule interaction services (Biacore)

In Vitro Services

A preclinical CRO specialising in developing and characterising bespoke in vitro assays for discovery and development.


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